This volume contains both Part 1 and Part 2 of The Civil War. The United States at War Series is a collection of presentations that review the political economic and social forces that have erupted in military conflict.Part - I.From 1861 to 1865 America was caught in the convulsions of war - The Civil War. No historical event short of the American Revolution itself has so deeply affected the United States.The Civil War is often called the War between the States by Southern historians. Thus even terminology illustrates the political question underpinning the war. Was the United States one nation or were the United States a group of sovereign states that could choose to disassociate? If America was a union rather than a confederacy of states then the powerful North could abolish slavery and impose tariffs on the slave-holding agricultural South. If America was a confederacy then Southern states could preserve their institutions by withdrawing from the union.What provoked this bloodletting? Both sides honored the same Constitution spoke the same language and worshipped the same God. But neither side could agree on whether America was a union or a compact of states.Part - II.With the advent of war the Confederate States of America faced serious problems. The Confederate population was 9.1 million compared to the Union's 19.1 million. The South controlled only one quarter of America's wealth. It had half the railroad mileage of the Union and its Navy was badly outnumbered. Nevertheless the South was fighting a defensive war on its own soil. Military theorists agree that such a war requires a three to one superiority for an aggressor to win. Many believed the South could prevail.Nevertheless on April 9 1865 General Lee surrendered what remained of his Confederate Army. But what had the North won?.The United States of Ame
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